What definition can we give to the back-end? It’s the engine of the website that consists of different parts related to the server, the database, and the app. Lots of tech specialists associate it with the root of the site. Despite the definitions, the back-end is still one of the most important parts of web development. Therefore, technologies of the backend that will be in demand in 2021 can impact the whole industry. We have prepared the list of top backend frameworks that have the necessary capacity to become increasingly popular this year.
Node.js & Express
Express is the highly demanded backend web development framework for Node.js. It helps to build apps easily and quickly. Developers use it to create Restful API’s that accept requests and send suitable responses.
Let’s find out why Express is highly valued among beginners and experienced developers. There are various reasons for this, namely:
- Despite its minimalism, Express supports plugins that help to make web apps more functional. Processes of configuring and customizing are quite simple.
- Any route of the application can be defined through the use of URLs and HTTP methods.
- The great support of the framework. The process of the back-end development is realized with the use of NPM packages.
- The minimum amount of time spent on debugging. This is connected to the convenient debugging mechanism.
- The framework is compatible with others. For example, Kranken, LoopBack, or Sails. It’s also possible to connect it with databases like MySQL, Redis, and MongoDB.
- The flexibility. Due to this peculiarity, Express has been appreciated by famous companies like Stack, Twitter, and Accenture. The backend part of other products is also wholly or partly built on Express. We are referring to PayPal, IBM, GoDaddy, Flickr, Storylens, and Walmart.
- The integrability of Express. Engineers and developers can use the framework with different template engines – from EJS and Jade to Vash.
Python & Django
The vast set of frameworks and libraries, simplicity, and versatility turned Python into one of the most popular programming languages. Django is well-known as a high-level framework for Python that brings together various libs. Developers can use it to create an efficient app because the framework is suitable for almost any project.
The advantages of Django are:
- Fast development. Due to Django, developers can move from concept to 100% project completion very quickly.
- High level of security. Django helps developers to avoid standard mistakes related to security. Also, this framework automatically protects the website. Let’s try to understand how it does it. First of all, Django manages an account and password without putting sensible information in cookies where it can be stolen. As usual, in such cases cookies save keys, and the important data is stored in the database.
PHP & Lavarel
PHP is a backend scripting programming language that can be used both for creating websites and apps.
Web PHP framework Lavarel, as usual, serves for the development of apps. Due to its flexibility, features, and convenient tools, Lavarel will become one of the most efficient and popular frameworks in 2021. It’s both fast and simple to use Lavarel.
The creator of Lavarel is Taylor Otwell. The syntax of the framework is considered to be elegant and expressive.
Among the main possibilities and features of Lavarel you will find various items:
- Authentication and authorization can be implemented with the help of a framework. It will be done simply helping to prevent access for the unauthorized user.
- There is a strong possibility to integrate a web app with mail services. Lavarel is directly connected to SwiftMailer library and has drivers for various services – from Amazon SES to Mailgun. Such drivers allow an app to send mails. Also, with the help of Lavarel it’s possible to provide sending notifications through other channels. For example, Slack.
- Increasing the performance of web applications. This was made possible through integration with a caching backend that is supported by Lavarel.
- The decrease in the technical vulnerabilities. Lavarel helps to build a web app that is protected against cross+site scripting or SQL injections.
- Clear error handling of the app is already configured for Lavarel-based projects.
- The availability of the automation testing for the app.
Ruby & Ruby on Rails
Programming language Ruby is still in high demand among developers who create web applications and realize another set of various tasks. It’s slower than Python but also well-known as an interpreted language. Ruby is one of three of the most famous languages for the backend. Due to advantages, lots of companies, including Airbnb, Fiverr, Github, use Ruby for their projects
Ruby on Rails is a server-side web app framework that was written with the help of Ruby. It was presented in 2003 and written by David Hansson. The main aim of the framework is to simplify the process of website and application creation. Developers are fond of it because Ruby on Rails reduces time spent on standard tasks like a building of form, menu, or table. They just choose the out-of-the-box solution that is reusable here. Therefore, developers do not waste time on building a website or app from scratch.
Speaking about the reasons why Ruby on Rails is in high demand among companies from different industries, we should mention that this framework has obvious advantages, namely:
- It’s an open-source backend framework. It is allowed to reuse code in different projects.
- A great community of talented developers who use Ruby on Rails and make it better.
- The code that is written with the usage of the framework is clear and consistent. This peculiarity is appreciated by companies that are going to improve the project that was written by the external team in the future.
- Ruby on Rails is well-known as one of the cost and time-efficient frameworks.
- Model-View-Controller-Format. It means that business logic is separated from other parts of an app. Each subsystem is responsible for concrete actions that help to speed up the process of development.
- Scalability. You can scale an app that is based on Ruby on Rails to process more requests per one second. This is valuable for apps that are growing and should process thousands of requests.
- DRY. With the help of RoR, developers do not repeat the same code writing it.
- Self-describing. The code that is written can be readable without any additional documentation. Newcomers are ready to participate in any existing project.
Of course, like any other framework or programming language, Ruby on Rails has disadvantages. For example, not all web hosting providers support RoR apps. Anyway, it’s still possible to find a reliable hosting provider. It means that this peculiarity won’t be an obstacle to prospering of the framework in 2021-2022.
TOP 5 perspective backend frameworks
1. ASP.NET Core.
This framework consists of libraries and tools that help to build amazing web applications. It works on OOP that helps to reduce coding. Also, ASP.NET Core is well-known as the cross-platform, high-performance framework that is suitable for building efficient apps.
Using ASP.NET Core has obvious benefits:
- Execution of apps built on ASP.NET is quite fast because windows servers are being used for code procession.
- High level of performance.
- Various environments and modes of development.
- Important configuration information is built-in.
- Simplicity. Developers appreciated this feature that helps to configure websites, forms, and processes of authentication.
- Versatility and flexibility.
- Convenient tools for developers. Jetbrains, Pesharper, and other tools simplify the building, testing, and implementation of apps.
This framework for PHP is highly regarded due to its high level of organization, wide collection of elements, and effectiveness. It relates to open source PHP platforms and includes different libraries that are reusable, helping to carry out the standard set of tasks.
CakePHP has various benefits:
- It is suitable for rapid building prototypes.
- Model-View-Control helps to distinguish data presentation from business logic. MVC reduces time and costs that are spent when the developer creates a web app or website.
- High level of flexibility that simplifies using CakePHP for the development of web apps and websites.
- Compatibility with any last version of PHP and different site directories.
- Simplified management and control of databases.
An overview of disadvantages shows that documentation of CakePHP is not comprehensive enough. But it’s not a big problem if you choose the right definitive guidelines.
Flask is a lightweight Python framework. It’s usually interpreted as microframework. It means that this framework enables us to choose needed libraries and tools. There is no database or other components that serve for the execution of basic functions.
The presentation of Flask happened in 2004. The basics of the framework includes Jinja2, Pocoo projects, and Werkzeug. A lot of developers do not perceive Flask as a serious framework with any prospects. Anyway, it has advantages that help to prosper:
- Integrated possibility to provide unit testing.
- Built-in debugger and development server.
- Support of client-side session.
- Simplicity. It’s quite easy to understand the code that is written with the help of flask.
- Flexibility. Almost any part of Flask can be changed. It’s possible to insert variables into the template.
- Well-structured documentation.
Phoenix is perceived as a framework that is similar to Ruby on Rails. It’s a kind of server-side framework that is built on the programming language named Elixir and includes both generators and migrations. Among the advantages of Phoenix we should mention the possibility to build scalable and highly efficient web apps with its help. The framework provides the needed level of productivity and performance.
This Node.js framework helps to build efficient, scalable, and reliable server-side apps. Developers can include any third-party module while using Nest.js. It can support various databases and can be easily extended with the help of additional libraries. Blocks in Nest.js are built with the help of modules, providers, and controllers. Modules help to organize the code in the most appropriate way. Providers that are also known as services serve to abstract any logic or complexity form. The incoming request is handled through the use of controllers.
Among the main advantages of Nest.js are:
- Ease of learning, using, and improving.
- Powerful and convenient CLI (Command Line Interface) that boosts productivity and simplifies the process of development.
- Well-structured documentation.
- Support of various nest-specific modules helps to interact with modern technologies. For example, Mongoose or WebSockets.
- Scalability of built apps.
- A large literate community that helps to develop the framework.
- Possibility to use for large enterprise apps.
Nest.js is appreciated by the biggest companies all over the world – from Adidas to Decathlon.
To sum up…
The list of TOP backend frameworks in 2021-2022 should include the technologies that are mentioned above. Besides them, good opportunities open to other frameworks, namely: JHipster, Spring Boot, and hapi.js. Will they be able to hold the lead through the backend development? Only time will tell.